Snap web questionnaires conform to version 2.1 of the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) meeting level AA compliance, with the addition of being compliant to many of the AAA level checkpoints. This statement was prepared on 13th September 2019.

Snap Surveys is committed to providing web products that are accessible to the widest possible audience, regardless of technology or ability. We are actively working to increase the accessibility and usability of our web products and in doing so adhere to many of the available standards and guidelines.

Section 508

Section 508 is the US standard for accessible ICT. It is part of the Federal Rehabilitation Act of 1973. In January 2017 the US Access Board published a final rule to update Section 508 standards in response to market trends and innovations, such as the convergence of technologies. The refresh also harmonizes these requirements with other guidelines and standards both in the U.S. and abroad, including standards issued by the European Commission and with the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) version 2.0 Level AA. Therefore, web questionnaires created in Snap are compliant with Section 508 Standards.

EN 301-549

EN 301-549 is the European standard for accessible ICT. It is based on the earlier WCAG 2.0 guidelines. The 38 success criteria which made up the WC AG 2.0 level A, AA & AAA recently added 12 more success criteria which make up the WCAG 2.1 level A & AA. Currently EN 301-549 is based on WCAG 2.0 but will eventually migrate to include 2.1 at some point.

WCAG 2.1

WCAG 2.1 published June 2018 extends WCAG 2.0 adding further provisions in the areas of low vision, and cognitive and learning disabilities. The standards also emphasise improving accessibility for users who browse web pages using mobile devices. These guidelines are a recommendation of the W3C Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI).

Click here to view the WCAG 2.1 guidelines: WCAG 2.1 guidelines

There are three sections to this document:

1. Snap accessibility options

A summary of the accessibility options available when producing Snap web questionnaires and how each affects accessibility.

  • Inserted Objects
    • Images
    • HTML Web links
    • Custom HTML
  • Normal and Plain versions
  • Style sheets
    • Use no colour
    • Use no images
    • Use strict rules

2. WCAG 2.1 Guidelines with supporting summaries

A listing of the WCAG 2.1 accessibility guidelines, listed with summaries of how Snap supports each principle and its guidelines.

3. Cross reference by Level A to Level AAA

A summary of the WCAG 2.1 guidelines, organised from Level A to Level AAA, with information about which versions of Snap’s web questionnaires support each guideline.

1. Snap accessibility options

This section provides a summary of the accessibility options available when producing Snap web questionnaires and how each affects accessibility.

Inserted Objects

Snap allows various objects to be inserted into the text areas of questionnaires and some of these have implications for usability.

Images

Authors can provide ‘alt text’ for any Inserted images. This text appears as a tooltip over the image and can be read aloud by screen readers to help people who cannot see the image.

All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose (checkpoint 1.1.1 Level A).

Care should be taken to ensure that images meet the minimum contrast ratio of 4.5:1 (checkpoint 1.4.3 (Level AA) & 1.4.6 Level AAA)), and that any blinking or flashing does not occur more than three times in one second (checkpoint 2.3.1 (Level A) & 2.3.2 (Level AAA) or movement be introduced (checkpoint 2.2.2 (Level A)).

Images can sometimes be used to make content easier to understand (checkpoint 3.1.5 Level AAA).

HTML Web Links

Authors can insert web links into web questionnaires. They should ensure that the link text is easy to understand (checkpoint 2.4.4 (Level A) & 2.4.9 (Level AAA)).

The static versions of Snap web questionnaires always open links in the same window. Dynamic Questionnaires must open links in a new window due to the way that they work.

Custom HTML

Virtually any HTML can be inserted into Snap questionnaires as custom HTML objects. These can be used to implement some accessibility features, such as to mark up changes in language (checkpoint 3.1.2) or to denote acronyms (checkpoint 3.1.4).

Care must be taken when using custom HTML as it is possible to introduce features which fail many of the checkpoints in this way.

Normal and Plain Versions

Snap can optionally produce two versions (Normal and Plain) of each web questionnaire. Both versions can be built and produced at the same time.

The Normal version can optionally contain dynamic behaviour and can include allowing the use of multiple pages, the use of routing, ensuring that responses are given, ensuring that responses are valid, using code rotation, grid rotation and using text substitution of responses. However some dynamic content may not satisfy all web accessibility guidelines, in particular the use of scripting to provide dynamic content prevents this version from satisfying the requirement to function in the absence of scripting (Conformance Requirement 1). Therefore, it is recommended that a Plain version is produced alongside dynamic surveys.

The Plain version has many options which can allow compliance with the WCAG 2.1 guidelines, but cannot support many of the advanced features of Snap dynamic questionnaires.

Link between Normal and Plain versions

When both Normal and Plain versions are produced, there is an option to apply web links to the top of each version to allow navigation between them.

A link to the Plain version from the Normal version is required by Conformance Requirement 1. The link text which is chosen should be clear and unambiguous (checkpoint 2.4.4 & 2.4.9).

Style Sheets (CSS)

It is possible to produce external style sheets for use with Snap’s web questionnaires. They can be produced for all versions, or they can be produced just for the Plain version.

Style sheets enable several guidelines to be met, including the requirement to not use markup for visual formatting (checkpoint 1.3.1) and to produce formally valid HTML (checkpoint 4.1.1).

Style sheets make it easier for respondents to reformat the questionnaire in a style which is easier for them to read or navigate.

Style sheets are always updated when new versions of the web questionnaire are produced, and care should be taken to upload the latest version of all files to the host web site.

Use no colour

It is possible to automatically remove all colour from the Plain version.

Whilst it is perfectly possible to produce accessible web pages that use colour, some authors may prefer to produce a colourless version when their main design has low contrast, or is otherwise difficult to read because of the colour scheme (checkpoints 1.4.3 & 1.4.6).

Use no images

It is possible to automatically remove all images from the Plain version.

Some authors may prefer to remove images from the Plain version when patterned backgrounds make a page harder to read (checkpoint 1.4.3 & 1.4.6), or when animated GIFs cause problematic visual effects in the Normal version (checkpoint 2.3.1, 2.3.2 & 2.2.2).

Note that the use of images normally causes no accessibility problems, and the use of graphics is even recommended in cases when they add to understanding (checkpoint 3.1.5), provided that text alternatives are provided (checkpoint 1.1.1).

Use strict rules

The Plain version can have a set of strict accessibility rules applied. The use of all of these rules ensures maximum accessibility for the Plain version.

Some of the rules fundamentally modify the appearance of the questionnaire, whilst others increase the size of the file produced. For these reasons the rules are not available for the Normal version.

Note that using strict rules is not required for Level A compliance.

The strict rules are described in more detail in the following section.

Using Strict Rules

Position labels correctly

This rule ensures that checkboxes are arranged in a single column, and that the code labels are placed to the right of the checkbox. Similarly, labels for open response controls are constrained to be either to the left or above their control.

This rule helps screen readers to correctly associate each label with the correct control in situations where there is no support for explicit labelling. Note that Snap always associates labels explicitly using the <label for> mechanism.

Expand grids

Grid questions containing multiple-choice questions can be difficult for assistive technologies to navigate. In particular it is not possible to associate a unique label with every control in the grid (checkpoint 1.3.1 & 4.1.2).

Expanding grids causes such questions to be reformatted so that the checkboxes for each question are displayed in a single column, with a code label shown for each one and with each question one below the other.

Some assistive technologies can correctly navigate grid questions, albeit not as easily as expanded grids, and so, when the requirements of the respondent are known, some authors may prefer to maintain the shape of their grid questions. Note though, that if grids are not expanded, then consideration could be given to provide abbreviations for row and column headers. Snap has no support for providing such abbreviations if grids are used but not expanded.

Use <fieldset> around questions

Section headings should be used to organise the content (checkpoint 2.4.10). The use of <fieldset> groups logically connected controls in a form.

Although Snap questions naturally form a group around the code options, some authors may feel that <fieldsets> are also required to satisfy this checkpoint. Certainly the use of <fieldset> allows some assistive technologies to navigate more efficiently and to provide more useful information to respondents about each control.

Note that <fieldsets> does change the appearance of published questionnaires, as most browsers render a <fieldsets> with a prominent border.

Use <fieldsets> around grid members

This option supplements the previous options to expand grids and to use <fieldsets>.

Where grids are expanded it can become difficult to identify where each question in a grid ends and the following one begins. Adding further <fieldsets>s around such grid members aids readability and accessibility, whilst providing more accurate groupings within the markup.

Note that <fieldsets> can only be added to grid members if grids are expanded.

External style sheet

Style sheets allow web pages to be produced with formatting separated from content (checkpoint 1.3.1, 1.3.2, 1.4.1 (level A), 1.4.4, 1.4.5, 2.4.7 (level AA), 1.4.8 & 1.4.9 (level AAA)).

Note that there is an option when using Snap 11 for an external style sheet for the Normal version, which automatically produces a style sheet for the Plain version.

Explicit tab order

Although Snap web questionnaires always have every link and control arranged in a logical order (checkpoint 2.4.3), it is still useful to ensure that controls are visited in the correct order by explicitly defining the tab order.

Use <accessKey>

Snap can optionally provide keyboard shortcuts (via accessKey) for the buttons on the Plain text version of web questionnaires. The keys employed are alt+R for reset and alt+S for submit. The keys are highlighted on the tooltips when used. (Access keys are no longer required for conformance to WCAG 2.1)

Browser support for keyboard shortcuts on web links is poor. Some browsers use the shortcut to set focus to the link, but require the respondent to press enter before following the link. This problem affects web questionnaires when image buttons are used, but questionnaires using regular push buttons respond to keyboard shortcuts well.

It is not practical for shortcuts to be provided for every input control as there are typically too many controls on a web questionnaire.

Although a keyboard shortcut could be provided to step through <fieldset> elements, such shortcuts are not supported by most browsers and cause unsatisfactory behaviour in some screen readers, and are therefore not generated by Snap.

Keyboard shortcuts are not generally easy to use as many assistive technologies employ many alt-key combinations as the basis for their user interfaces and many browsers use them to access menu items. Therefore, whenever keyboard shortcuts are used on web pages there is a risk of them interfering in unexpected ways with the assistive technologies and browsers, making them counter-productive in terms of web accessibility.

3. WCAG 2.1 Guidelines with supporting summaries

The WCAG 2.1 guidelines are listed in this statement with summaries of how Snap supports each guideline. The numbers assigned to each guideline are as indicated in the WCAG version 2.1 as published by the W3C.

WCAG 2.1 extends WCAG 2.0 and is designed to apply broadly to different web technologies now and in the future. The guidelines provide the basic goals that authors should work toward in order to make content more accessible to users with different disabilities. They provide a framework to assist authors in understanding the success criteria organised into four principles: Perceivable, Operable, Understandable and Robust.

Perceivable

Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.

Operable

User interface components and navigation must be operable.

Understandable

Information and the operation of the user interface must be understandable.

Robust

Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies.

Measurable success criteria

Each guideline in WCAG 2.1 has measurable success criteria divided into levels defined as A (lowest), AA and AAA (highest). Conformance is achieved by meeting the testable success criteria of any of the three priority levels. The W3C suggests that it is important for authors to report any progress toward meeting success criteria from all levels beyond the achieved level of conformance.

The ‘Normal’ version of Snap web questionnaires is able to satisfy all of the Level A success criteria. In order to produce questionnaires at a higher level of compliance it is necessary to select publication options for an additional ‘Plain text’ version, which when published with all of the available options, will be compliant to Level AA.

Symbols are used in the following listings to denote:

Satisfied always Details of how Snap supports the success criteria.
Satisfied through author's responsibility Details of how Snap supports the success criteria when certain options are selected.
Satisfied by being not applicable The success criteria are not applicable to Snap web questionnaires.
Satisfied if appropriate options are set Details of how Snap supports the success criteria, however this relies upon care from the author as they compose and format their questionnaires.

Principle 1. Perceivable

Information and user interface components must be presentable to users in ways they can perceive.

Guideline 1.1

Text Alternatives: Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols or simpler language.

1.1.1 Non-text Content:

(Level A) All non-text content that is presented to the user has a text alternative that serves the equivalent purpose, except for the situations listed below.

Controls, Input:

If non-text content is a control or accepts user input, then it has a name that describes its purpose. (Refer to Guideline 4.1 for additional requirements for controls and content that accepts user input.)

Time-Based Media:

If non-text content is time-based media, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content. (Refer to Guideline 1.2 for additional requirements for media.)

Test:

If non-text content is a test or exercise that would be invalid if presented in text, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

Sensory:

If non-text content is primarily intended to create a specific sensory experience, then text alternatives at least provide descriptive identification of the non-text content.

CAPTCHA:

If the purpose of non-text content is to confirm that content is being accessed by a person rather than a computer, then text alternatives that identify and describe the purpose of the non-text content are provided, and alternative forms of CAPTCHA using output modes for different types of sensory perception are provided to accommodate different disabilities.

Decoration, Formatting, Invisible:

If non-text content is pure decoration, is used only for visual formatting, or is not presented to users, then it is implemented in a way that it can be ignored by assistive technology.

Satisfied always Images are the only non-text elements directly supported by Snap. Snap provides alt text for all embedded images, which can be specified by authors.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors can employ other non-text elements in Snap web questionnaires, by inserting custom html fields. In these cases, care should be taken to provide the appropriate descriptive attributes.

Guideline 1.2

Time-based Media: Provide alternatives for time-based media

1.2.1 Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded): (Level A) For prerecorded audio-only and prerecorded video-only media, the following are true, except when the audio or video is a media alternative for text and is clearly labelled as such:

  • Prerecorded Audio-only: An alternative for time-based media is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded audio-only content.
  • Prerecorded Video-only: Either an alternative for time-based media or an audio track is provided that presents equivalent information for prerecorded video-only content.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors may choose to include video content and in such cases, they can include alternative representations that present equivalent information to the videos.

1.2.2 Captions (Prerecorded): (Level A) Captions are provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labelled as such.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide auditory descriptions and synchronize equivalent alternatives.

1.2.3 Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded): (Level A) An alternative for time-based media or audio description of the prerecorded video content is provided for synchronized media, except when the media is a media alternative for text and is clearly labelled as such.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide an alternative media or audio description for synchronized media.

1.2.4 Captions (Live): (Level AA) Captions are provided for all live audio content in synchronized media.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide captions for all live content in synchronized media.

1.2.5 Audio Description (Prerecorded): (Level AA) Audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide auditory descriptions and synchronize equivalent alternatives.

1.2.6 Sign Language (Prerecorded): (Level AAA) Sign language interpretation is provided for all prerecorded audio content in synchronized media.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should include a sign language interpreter or provide sign language interpretation for audio content in synchronised media.

1.2.7 Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded): (Level AAA) Where pauses in foreground audio are insufficient to allow audio descriptions to convey the sense of the video, extended audio description is provided for all prerecorded video content in synchronized media.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide extended audio description for video content and synchronised media.

1.2.8 Media Alternative (Prerecorded): (Level AAA) An alternative for time-based media is provided for all prerecorded synchronized media and for all prerecorded video-only media.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide a media alternative for synchronised media and video-only content.

1.2.9 Audio-only (Live): (Level AAA) An alternative for time-based media that presents equivalent information for live audio-only content is provided.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should provide an audio-only alternative for time-based media.

Guideline 1.3

Adaptable: Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example simpler layout) without losing information or structure.

1.3.1 Info and Relationships: (Level A) Information, structure, and relationships conveyed through presentation can be programmatically determined or are available in text.

Satisfied always When style sheets are employed, any ‘note’ type variables from Snap are rendered using suitable header tags, chosen based on the font size used in the questionnaire style.

Satisfied by being not applicable Web Authors can employ methods, such as using text, to present or convey the information, structure and relationships.

1.3.2 Meaningful Sequence: (Level A) When the sequence in which content is presented affects its meaning, a correct reading sequence can be programmatically determined.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaires remain readable when layout tables are linearized.

Satisfied always Web questionnaire content is presented visually as well as programmatically in a logical sequence.

1.3.3 Sensory Characteristics: (Level A) Instructions provided for understanding and operating content do not rely solely on sensory characteristics of components such as shape, size, visual location, orientation, or sound.

Satisfied by being not applicable When authors design their questionnaires they should provide instructions for understanding and operating content to avoid relying solely on sensory characteristics.

1.3.4 Orientation: (Level AA) Content does not restrict its view and operation to a single display orientation, such as portrait or landscape, unless a specific display orientation is essential.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaires do not restrict views to single display orientation.

1.3.5 Identify Input Purpose: (Level AA) The purpose of each input field, collecting information about the user, can be programmatically determined when:

  • The input field serves a purpose identified in the Input Purposes for User Interface Components section; and
  • The content is implemented using technologies with support for identifying the expected meaning for form input data.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should ensure that if using input fields which collect information about the user, from this list https://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG21/#input-purposesare, use labels and are labelled appropriately.

1.3.6 Identify Purpose: (Level AAA) In content implemented using markup languages, the purpose of User Interface Components, icons, and regions can be programmatically determined.

Satisfied always Standard interface components such as control buttons and progress bars have appropriate alt-text descriptions applied automatically.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should ensure that any icons they include should have appropriate alt-text and avoid the use of complex interface components (such as sliders etc.).

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally ensure that the Plain versions of web questionnaires do not employ other interface components.

Guideline 1.4

Distinguishable: Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.

1.4.1 Use of Colour: (Level A) Colour is not used as the only visual means of conveying information, indicating an action, prompting a response, or distinguishing a visual element.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who assign meaning colours should ensure that the information is otherwise available.

1.4.2 Audio Control: (Level A) If any audio on a Web page plays automatically for more than 3 seconds, either a mechanism is available to pause or stop the audio, or a mechanism is available to control audio volume independently from the overall system volume level.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should employ mechanisms to pause, stop or adjust the volume.

1.4.3 Contrast (Minimum): (Level AA) The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1, except for the following:

Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1;

Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally ensure that the Plain versions of web questionnaires employ no colours and no images which can help to avoid issues of contrast.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who choose to use colour on their Plain version should ensure a sufficient contrast in the colour scheme they design.

1.4.4 Resize text: (Level AA) Except for captions and images of text, text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.

Satisfied always Text in Snap can be resized up to 200 percent without loss of content or functionality.

1.4.5 Images of Text: (Level AA) If the technologies being used can achieve the visual presentation, text is used to convey information rather than images of text except for the following:

Customizable: The image of text can be visually customized to the user’s requirements;

Essential: A particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using non-text content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should use suitable markup where available.

1.4.6 Contrast (Enhanced): (Level AAA) The visual presentation of text and images of text has a contrast ratio of at least 7:1, except for the following:

Large Text: Large-scale text and images of large-scale text have a contrast ratio of at least 4.5:1;

Incidental: Text or images of text that are part of an inactive user interface component, that are pure decoration, that are not visible to anyone, or that are part of a picture that contains significant other visual content, have no contrast requirement.

Logotypes: Text that is part of a logo or brand name has no minimum contrast requirement.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally ensure that the Plain versions of web questionnaires employ no colours and no images which can help to avoid issues of contrast.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who choose to use colour on their Plain version should ensure a sufficient contrast in the colour scheme they design.

1.4.7 Low or No Background Audio: (Level AAA) For prerecorded audio-only content that (1) contains primarily speech in the foreground, (2) is not an audio CAPTCHA or audio logo, and (3) is not vocalization intended to be primarily musical expression such as singing or rapping, at least one of the following is true:

No Background: The audio does not contain background sounds.

Turn Off: The background sounds can be turned off.

20 dB: The background sounds are at least 20 decibels lower than the foreground speech content, with the exception of occasional sounds that last for only one or two seconds.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using multimedia content, by inserting custom media fields or otherwise, should ensure that prerecorded audio-only content has no background sounds or the background sounds can be turned off.

1.4.8 Visual Presentation: (Level AAA) For the visual presentation of blocks of text, a mechanism is available to achieve the following:

Foreground and background colours can be selected by the user.

Width is no more than 80 characters or glyphs (40 if CJK).

Text is not justified (aligned to both the left and the right margins).

Line spacing (leading) is at least space-and-a-half within paragraphs, and paragraph spacing is at least 1.5 times larger than the line spacing.

Text can be resized without assistive technology up to 200 percent in a way that does not require the user to scroll horizontally to read a line of text on a full-screen window.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who choose to use visual presentation for blocks of text on the Plain version should ensure there are sufficient mechanisms in their design to meet this checkpoint.

1.4.9 Images of Text (No Exception): (Level AAA) Images of text are only used for pure decoration or where a particular presentation of text is essential to the information being conveyed.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors using non-text content, by inserting custom html fields or otherwise, should use suitable markup where available.

1.4.10 Reflow: (Level AA) Content can be presented without loss of information or functionality, and without requiring scrolling in two dimensions for:

  • Vertical scrolling content at a width equivalent to 320 CSS pixels;
  • Horizontal scrolling content at a height equivalent to 256 CSS pixels.

Except for parts of the content which require two-dimensional layout for usage or meaning.

Satisfied always Snap can ensure that web questionnaires comply with this requirement: open the Questionnaire Properties dialog, Page Settings section and select ‘fit to window’ in the drop down control.

1.4.11 Non-text Contrast: (Level AA) The visual presentation of the following have a contrast ratio of at least 3:1 against adjacent colour(s):

  • User Interface Components

    Visual information required to identify user interface components and states, except for inactive components or where the appearance of the component is determined by the user agent and not modified by the author;

  • Graphical Objects

    Parts of graphics required to understand the content, except when a particular presentation of graphics is essential to the information being conveyed.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally ensure that the Plain versions of web questionnaires employ no colours and no images which can help to avoid issues of contrast.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who choose to use colour on their Plain version should ensure a sufficient contrast in the colour scheme they design.

1.4.12 Text Spacing: (Level AA) In content implemented using markup languages that support the following text style properties, no loss of content or functionality occurs by setting all of the following and by changing no other style property:

  • Line height (line spacing) to at least 1.5 times the font size;
  • Spacing following paragraphs to at least 2 times the font size;
  • Letter spacing (tracking) to at least 0.12 times the font size;
  • Word spacing to at least 0.16 times the font size.

Exception: Human languages and scripts that do not make use of one or more of these text style properties in written text can conform using only the properties that exist for that combination of language and script.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who choose content implemented by inserting custom html fields or otherwise, should use suitable markup where available.

1.4.13 Content on Hover or Focus: (Level AA) Where receiving and then removing pointer hover or keyboard focus triggers additional content to become visible and then hidden, the following are true:

  • Dismissable

    A mechanism is available to dismiss the additional content without moving pointer hover or keyboard focus, unless the additional content communicates an input error or does not obscure or replace other content;

  • Hoverable

    If pointer hover can trigger the additional content, then the pointer can be moved over the additional content without the additional content disappearing;

  • Persistent

    remains visible until the hover or focus trigger is removed, the user dismisses it, or its information is no longer valid.
    Exception: The visual presentation of the additional content is controlled by the user agent and is not modified by the author.

Exception: The visual presentation of the additional content is controlled by the user agent and is not modified by the author.

Satisfied always The content on hover or focus in Snap web questionnaires is automatically dismissable, hoverable and persistent by default.

Principle 2. Operable – User interface components and navigation must be operable

Guideline 2.1

Keyboard Accessible: Make all functionality available from a keyboard.

2.1.1 Keyboard: (Level A) All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes, except where the underlying function requires input that depends on the path of the user’s movement and not just the endpoints.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaires support standard keyboard navigation and input functions (such as pressing [Tab] to move between input fields, pressing the arrow keys to move between list items, and pressing [Space] or [Enter] to make selections).

2.1.2 No Keyboard Trap: (Level A) If keyboard focus can be moved to a component of the page using a keyboard interface, then focus can be moved away from that component using only a keyboard interface, and, if it requires more than unmodified arrow or tab keys or other standard exit methods, the user is advised of the method for moving focus away.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaires support standard keyboard navigation and input functions (such as pressing [Tab] to move between input fields, pressing the arrow keys to move between list items, and pressing [Space] or [Enter] to make selections).

2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception): (Level AAA) All functionality of the content is operable through a keyboard interface without requiring specific timings for individual keystrokes.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Snap does not employ any element with an interface besides the standard html form controls.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Unmodified Snap web questionnaires do not utilise device-dependent event handlers.

2.1.4 Character Key Shortcuts: (Level A) If a keyboard shortcut is implemented in content using only letter (including upper- and lower-case letters), punctuation, number, or symbol characters, then at least one of the following is true:

  • Turn off: A mechanism is available to turn the shortcut off;
  • Remap: A mechanism is available to remap the shortcut to use one or more non-printable keyboard characters (e.g. Ctrl, Alt, etc);
  • Active only on focus: The keyboard shortcut for a user interface component is only active when that component has focus.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally provide keyboard shortcuts (via accessKey) for the buttons on the Plain version of web questionnaires. The keys employed are alt+R for reset and alt+S for submit. The keys are highlighted on the tooltips when used.

Guideline 2.2

Enough Time: Provide users enough time to read and use content.
2.2.1 Timing Adjustable: (Level A) For each time limit that is set by the content, at least one of the following is true:

  • Turn off: The user is allowed to turn off the time limit before encountering it; or
  • Adjust: The user is allowed to adjust the time limit before encountering it over a wide range that is at least ten times the length of the default setting; or
  • Extend: The user is warned before time expires and given at least 20 seconds to extend the time limit with a simple action (for example, “press the space bar”), and the user is allowed to extend the time limit at least ten times; or
  • Real-time Exception: The time limit is a required part of a real-time event (for example, an auction), and no alternative to the time limit is possible; or
  • Essential Exception: The time limit is essential and extending it would invalidate the activity; or
  • 20 Hour Exception: The time limit is longer than 20 hours.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should avoid inserting a page timer option in the design of their questionnaires to meet this checkpoint. Information on the Snap Page Timer feature: https://www.snapsurveys.com/help/#35172.

2.2.2 Pause, Stop, Hide: For moving, blinking, scrolling, or auto-updating information, all of the following are true: (Level A)

  • Moving, blinking, scrolling: For any moving, blinking or scrolling information that (1) starts automatically, (2) lasts more than five seconds, and (3) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it unless the movement, blinking, or scrolling is part of an activity where it is essential; and
  • Auto-updating: For any auto-updating information that (1) starts automatically and (2) is presented in parallel with other content, there is a mechanism for the user to pause, stop, or hide it or to control the frequency of the update unless the auto-updating is part of an activity where it is essential.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors must be aware to avoid inserting content, which cause flickering, blinking or movement effects.

2.2.3 No Timing: (Level AAA) Timing is not an essential part of the event or activity presented by the content, except for non-interactive synchronized media and real-time events.

Satisfied always The Plain version of Snap web questionnaires employ no programmatic elements.

2.2.4 Interruptions: (Level AAA) Interruptions can be postponed or suppressed by the user, except interruptions involving an emergency.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Snap web questionnaires do not experience interruptions.

2.2.5 Re-authenticating: (Level AAA) When an authenticated session expires, the user can continue the activity without loss of data after re-authenticating.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Snap web questionnaires sessions do not expire.

2.2.6 Timeouts: (Level AAA) Users are warned of the duration of any user inactivity that could cause data loss, unless the data is preserved for more than 20 hours when the user does not take any actions.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Snap web questionnaires do not auto-refresh.

Guideline 2.3

Seizures: Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.

2.3.1 Three Flashes or Below Threshold: (Level A) Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period, or the flash is below the general flash and red flash thresholds.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors must be aware to avoid inserting content, which flashes more than three times in any one second or flash below the general flash and red flash thresholds.

2.3.2 Three Flashes: (Level AAA) Web pages do not contain anything that flashes more than three times in any one second period.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors must be aware to avoid inserting content, which flashes more than three times in any one second.

2.3.3 Animation from Interactions: (Level AAA) Motion animation triggered by interaction can be disabled, unless the animation is essential to the functionality or the information being conveyed.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors inserting multimedia should ensure that they allow controls which can disable any inserted animation.

Guideline 2.4

Navigable: Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.

2.4.1 Bypass Blocks: (Level A) A mechanism is available to bypass blocks of content that are repeated on multiple Web pages.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their web questionnaires.

2.4.2 Page Titled: (Level A) Web pages have titles that describe topic or purpose.

Satisfied always Snap surveys provide the option for page titles.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should ensure that they enter a title when they create their questionnaires.

2.4.3 Focus Order: (Level A) If a Web page can be navigated sequentially and the navigation sequences affect meaning or operation, focusable components receive focus in an order that preserves meaning and operability.

Satisfied always All controls and links always appear in the web page in a logical order.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally provide an explicit tab order for the plain text version of web questionnaires.

2.4.4 Link Purpose (In Context): (Level A) The purpose of each link can be determined from the link text alone or from the link text together with its programmatically determined link context, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors may choose to include links in web questionnaires and Snap can provide capabilities for defining the text of designer-specified link content.

2.4.5 Multiple Ways: (Level AA) More than one way is available to locate a Web page within a set of Web pages except where the Web Page is the result of, or a step in, a process.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors who choose content implemented by inserting custom html fields or otherwise, should use suitable markup where available.

2.4.6 Headings and Labels: (Level AA) Headings and labels describe topic or purpose.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose the text of their questionnaires.

2.4.7 Focus Visible: (Level AA) Any keyboard operable user interface has a mode of operation where the keyboard focus indicator is visible.

Satisfied always Snap uses user interface components as a visual focus indicator to aid in navigation and understanding.

2.4.8 Location: (Level AAA) Information about the user’s location within a set of Web pages is available.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors have the option to insert a Progress Bar into Snap web questionnaires to provide information on the user’s location.

2.4.9 Link Purpose (Link Only): (Level AAA) A mechanism is available to allow the purpose of each link to be identified from link text alone, except where the purpose of the link would be ambiguous to users in general.

Satisfied by being not applicable When authors insert web links, they should ensure that suitable link text is used.

2.4.10 Section Headings: (Level AAA) Section headings are used to organize the content.

Satisfied always When style sheets are employed, any ‘note’ type variables from Snap are rendered using suitable header tags, chosen based on the font size used in the questionnaire style.

Guideline 2.5 Input Modalities: Make it easier for users to operate functionality through various inputs beyond keyboard.

2.5.1 Pointer Gestures: (Level A) All functionality that uses multipoint or path-based gestures for operation can be operated with a single pointer without a path-based gesture, unless a multipoint or path-based gesture is essential.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Not applicable for Snap surveys.

2.5.2 Pointer Cancellation: (Level A) For functionality that can be operated using a single pointer, at least one of the following is true:

  • No Down-Event: The down-event of the pointer is not used to execute any part of the function;
  • Abort or Undo: Completion of the function is on the up-event, and a mechanism is available to abort the function before completion or to undo the function after completion;
  • Up Reversal: The up-event reverses any outcome of the preceding down-event;
  • Essential: Completing the function on the down-event is essential.

Satisfied always Snap does not use the down-event of the pointer to execute functionality.

2.5.3 Label in Name: (Level A) For user interface components with labels that include text or images of text, the name contains the text that is presented visually.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

2.5.4 Motion Actuation: (Level A) Functionality that can be operated by device motion or user motion can also be operated by user interface components and responding to the motion can be disabled to prevent accidental actuation, except when:

  • Supported Interface: The motion is used to operate functionality through an accessibility supported interface;
  • Essential: The motion is essential for the function and doing so would invalidate the activity.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Not applicable for Snap surveys.

2.5.5 Target Size: (Level AAA) The size of the target for pointer inputs is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels except when:

  • Equivalent: The target is available through an equivalent link or control on the same page that is at least 44 by 44 CSS pixels;
  • Inline: The target is in a sentence or block of text;
  • User Agent Control: The size of the target is determined by the user agent and is not modified by the author;
  • Essential: A particular presentation of the target is essential to the information being conveyed.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms: (Level AAA) Web content does not restrict use of input modalities available on a platform except where the restriction is essential, required to ensure the security of the content, or required to respect user settings.

Satisfied if appropriate options are set Not applicable for Snap surveys.

Principle 3. Understandable: Information and the operation of user interface must be understandable

Guideline 3.1

Readable: Make text content readable and understandable

3.1.1 Language of Page: (Level A) The default human language of each Web page can be programmatically determined.

Satisfied always Snap identifies the primary language within the tags of its web questionnaires. The default language is ‘en’(English).

3.1.2 Language of Parts: (Level AA) The human language of each passage or phrase in the content can be programmatically determined except for proper names, technical terms, words of indeterminate language, and words or phrases that have become part of the vernacular of the immediately surrounding text.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors can mark any change of language by inserting custom html objects into Snap surveys. Each text field written in a language other than the default one should use a custom html object at both ends. The start of the field should have an object containing , where ‘xx’ is any valid language code (such as ‘en’ for English or ‘fr’ for French). The end of the field should have an object containing

3.1.3 Unusual Words: (Level AAA) A mechanism is available for identifying specific definitions of words or phrases used in an unusual or restricted way, including idioms and jargon.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

3.1.4 Abbreviations: (Level AAA) A mechanism for identifying the expanded form or meaning of abbreviations is available.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors can insert custom html objects as required.
An object is required on each side of the abbreviation or acronym. The one before the text should contain “<acronym title=”xxx”>” where ‘xxx’ is the required expansion, and the one after it should contain “</acronym>”

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose the text of their questionnaires.

3.1.5 Reading Level: (Level AAA) When text requires reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level after removal of proper names and titles, supplemental content, or a version that does not require reading ability more advanced than the lower secondary education level, is available.

Satisfied by being not applicable Where appropriate extra elements can be added by inserting images or custom html objects.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose the text of their questionnaires.

3.1.6 Pronunciation: (Level AAA) A mechanism is available for identifying specific pronunciation of words where meaning of the words, in context, is ambiguous without knowing the pronunciation.

Satisfied by being not applicable Where appropriate extra elements can be added by inserting images or custom html objects.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

Guideline 3.2

Predictable: Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways

3.2.1 On Focus: (Level A) When any component receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.

Satisfied always When a component in a Snap web questionnaire receives focus, it does not initiate a change of context.

3.2.2 On Input: (Level A) Changing the setting of any user interface component does not automatically cause a change of context unless the user has been advised of the behaviour before using the component.

Satisfied always The current window is only changed on Normal web questionnaires when a respondent uses the Next or Previous page buttons. The Plain version of Snap web questionnaires always open links in the same window.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware that links inserted in the Normal version of a questionnaire open in a new window. This is because opening a link on the same page would exit the survey and the browser back button could not be relied upon to restore the respondent answers and last location within the survey correctly.

3.2.3 Consistent Navigation: (Level AA) Navigational mechanisms that are repeated on multiple Web pages within a set of Web pages occur in the same relative order each time they are repeated, unless a change is initiated by the user.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

3.2.4 Consistent Identification: (Level AA) Components that have the same functionality within a set of Web pages are identified consistently.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaire components are consistent and have the same functionality on each page. E.g. A Next button text is the same on each page in the questionnaire.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires to ensure consistency.

3.2.5 Change on Request: (Level AAA) Changes of context are initiated only by user request or a mechanism is available to turn off such changes.

Satisfied always The current window is only changed on Normal web questionnaires when a respondent uses the next or previous page buttons.

Satisfied by being not applicable Links inserted in the Normal version of a web questionnaire open in another window. This is because once the survey has been left the back button cannot be relied upon to restore the answers and location within the survey correctly, when the respondent wishes to complete the survey. Plain versions of Snap web questionnaires always open links in the same window.

Guideline 3.3

Input Assistance: help users avoid and correct mistakes

3.3.1 Error Identification: (Level A) If an input error is automatically detected, the item that is in error is identified and the error is described to the user in text.

Satisfied always Snap provides capabilities for specifying error text for web questionnaire components.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

3.3.2 Labels or Instructions: (Level A) Labels or instructions are provided when content requires user input.

Satisfied always Snap provides capabilities for specifying labels for user input components configured by authors.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

3.3.3 Error Suggestion: (Level AA) If an input error is automatically detected and suggestions for correction are known, then the suggestions are provided to the user, unless it would jeopardize the security or purpose of the content.

Satisfied always Snap provides capabilities for specifying error text suggestions for web questionnaire components.

3.3.4 Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data): (Level AA) For Web pages that cause legal commitments or financial transactions for the user to occur, that modify or delete user-controllable data in data storage systems, or that submit user test responses, at least one of the following is true:

  • Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
  • Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
  • Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires by employing mechanisms in the design to avoid serious consequences as the result of a mistake. For example by having the last page of the questionnaire contain a summary of the answers given and providing the respondent with the ability to go [back] and correct any errors and possibly having a “I have reviewed this and it is correct” checkbox.

3.3.5 Help: (Level AAA) Context-sensitive help is available.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires.

3.3.6 Error Prevention (All): (Level AAA) For Web pages that require the user to submit information, at least one of the following is true:

  • Reversible: Submissions are reversible.
  • Checked: Data entered by the user is checked for input errors and the user is provided an opportunity to correct them.
  • Confirmed: A mechanism is available for reviewing, confirming, and correcting information before finalizing the submission.

Satisfied by being not applicable Authors should be aware of this checkpoint as they compose their questionnaires by employing mechanisms in the design to avoid consequences resulting from mistakes. For example by having the last page of the questionnaire contain a summary of the answers given and providing the respondent with the ability to go [back] and correct any errors and possibly having a “I have reviewed this and it is correct” checkbox.

Principle 4. Robust: Content must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a wide variety of user agents, including assistive technologies

Guideline 4.1

Compatible: Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies

4.1.1 Parsing: (Level A) In content implemented using markup languages, elements have complete start and end tags, elements are nested according to their specifications, elements do not contain duplicate attributes, and any IDs are unique, except where the specifications allow these features.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaires use syntactically-correct markup, which is programmatically generated to prevent parsing errors.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Snap can optionally produce an external style sheet for the Plain version of a web questionnaire.

Satisfied through author's responsibility Versions of Snap web questionnaires which use external style sheets are valid html 4 transitional web pages. (“-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN”)

Where Snap web questionnaires fail DTD validation, it is typically in the use of attributes and features from earlier versions of HTML which are no longer formally valid, but which cannot be reproduced in any practical alternative way. In particular, when style sheets are not employed, some of the alternative layout elements are formally regarded as deprecated. (In fact some cosmetic attributes, such as the attribute ‘border’ as used within the tag , are considered deprecated even though they cannot be reproduced with style sheet settings.)

In the absence of style sheets, the markup employed is wholly supported by all major browsers, and their use typically has minimal impact on accessibility tools.

4.1.2 Name, Role, Value: (Level A) For all user interface components (including but not limited to: form elements, links and components generated by scripts), the name and role can be programmatically determined; states, properties, and values that can be set by the user can be programmatically set; and notification of changes to these items is available to user agents, including assistive technologies.

Satisfied always Snap web questionnaires employ standard HTML controls.

4.1.3 Status Messages: (Level AA) In content implemented using markup languages, status messages can be programmatically determined through role or properties such that they can be presented to the user by assistive technologies without receiving focus.

Satisfied always Snap sets role properties as appropriate.

4. Cross reference by priority

The below table is a summary of the WCAG 2.1 guidelines, sorted by priority, with information about which versions of Snaps web questionnaires support each guideline.

Key to cross reference:

YES – Checkpoints which are fully satisfied, dependent upon the content supplied by the author or are supported if certain options are used in Snap.
NA – Checkpoints which are satisfied by not being applicable.
NO – Checkpoints which are not fully supported by Snap.

Level A

 

Check – point

 

Summary

 

Supported by Snap Normal version

 

Supported by Snap Plain version

1.1.1

Non-text Content

YES

YES

1.2.1

Audio-only and Video-only (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.2.2

Captions (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.2.3

Audio Description or Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.3.1

Info and Relationships

YES

YES

1.3.2

Meaningful Sequence

YES

YES

1.3.3

Sensory Characteristics

YES

YES

1.4.1

Use of Colour

YES

YES

1.4.2

Audio Control

YES

YES

2.1.1

Keyboard

YES

YES

2.1.2

No Keyboard Trap

YES

YES

2.1.4

Character Key Shortcuts

YES

YES

2.2.1

Timing Adjustable

YES

YES

2.2.2

Pause, Stop, Hide

YES

YES

2.3.1

Three Flashes or Below Threshold

YES

YES

2.4.1

Bypass Blocks

YES

YES

2.4.2

Page Titled

YES

YES

2.4.3

Focus Order

YES

YES

2.4.4

Link Purpose (In Context)

YES

YES

2.5.1

Pointer Gestures

NA

NA

2.5.2

Pointer Cancellation

YES

YES

2.5.3

Label in Name

YES

YES

2.5.4

Motion Actuation

NA

NA

3.1.1

Language of Page

YES

YES

3.2.1

On Focus

YES

YES

3.2.2

On Input

YES

YES

3.3.1

Error Identification

YES

YES

3.3.2

Labels or Instructions

 YES

 YES

4.1.1

Parsing

 YES

 YES

4.1.2

Name, Role, Value

 YES

 YES

Level AA

 

Check – point

 

Summary

 

Supported by Snap   Normal version

 

Supported by Snap Plain version

1.2.4

Captions (Live)

YES

YES

1.2.5

Audio Description (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.3.4

Orientation

YES

YES

1.3.5`

Identify Input Purpose

YES

YES

1.4.3

Contrast (Minimum)

YES

1.4.4

Resize Text

YES

YES

1.4.5

Images of Text

YES

YES

1.4.10

Reflow

YES

YES

1.4.11

Non-text Contrast

YES

1.4.12

Text Spacing

YES

1.4.13

Content on Hover or Focus

YES

YES

2.4.5

Multiple Ways

YES

YES

2.4.6

Headings and Labels

YES

YES

2.4.7

Focus Visible

YES

YES

3.1.2

Language of Parts

YES

YES

3.2.3

Consistent Navigation

YES

YES

3.2.4

Consistent Identification

YES

YES

3.3.3

Error Suggestion

YES

YES

3.3.4

Error Prevention (Legal, Financial, Data)

YES

YES

4.1.3

Status Messages

YES

YES

Level AAA

 

Check – point

 

Summary

Supported by Snap Normal version Supported by Snap Plain version

1.2.6

Sign Language (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.2.7

Extended Audio Description (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.2.8

Media Alternative (Prerecorded)

YES

YES

1.2.9

Audio-only (Live)

YES

YES

1.3.6

Identify Purpose

YES

YES

1.4.6

Contrast (Enhanced)

YES

1.4.7

Low or No Background Audio

YES

YES

1.4.8

Visual Presentation

YES

YES

1.4.9

Images of Text (No Exception)

YES

YES

2.1.3

Keyboard (No Exception)

NA

NA

2.2.3

No Timing

YES

YES

2.2.4

Interruptions

NA

NA

2.2.5

Re-authenticating

NA

NA

2.2.6

Timeouts

NA

NA

2.3.2

Three Flashes

YES

YES

2.3.3

Animation from Interactions

YES

YES

2.4.8

Location

NA

NA

2.4.9

Link Purpose (Link Only)

YES

YES

2.4.10

Section Headings

YES

YES

2.5.5

Target Size

YES

YES

2.5.6

Concurrent Input Mechanisms

NA

NA

3.1.3

Unusual Words

YES

YES

3.1.4

Abbreviations

YES

YES

3.1.5

Reading Level

YES

YES

3.1.6

Pronunciation

YES

YES

3.2.5

Change on Request

YES

YES

3.3.5

Help

YES

YES

3.3.6

Error Prevention (All)

YES

YES

The following success criteria were not applicable as there are no scenarios that could be tested in order to assess the accessibility of this aspect of the product.

2.1.3 Keyboard (No Exception)
2.2.1 Timing Adjustable
2.2.4 Interruptions
2.2.5 Re-authenticating
2.2.6 Timeouts
2.4.8 Location
2.5.1 Pointer Gestures
2.5.4 Motion Actuation
2.5.6 Concurrent Input Mechanisms
3.1.2 Language of Parts

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