Snap Surveys software terminology

Analysis Table

A table showing the data from a survey, displayed using rows and columns. They usually have column headings across the top of the table and row headings along the side of the table describing the data contained in the table.

Analysis Chart

Charts are a graphical way of presenting and analysing your survey data. A common chart used is a bar chart which displays the results using horizontal or vertical bars where the bar size represents a specific result, often the number or percentage of responses to a question answer.

Analysis List

Lists allow you to itemize the responses to one or more variables in your survey. They usually contain information from open-ended questions that ask for comments or any other free format text.

Analysis Cloud (Word Cloud)

Word clouds display responses to a question in a graphic and provide a quick way to see the most common responses. The words in the cloud appear larger the more popular the response for that word. You can create word clouds from any type of variable, although they are most often used for displaying open-ended literal responses to see how often particular words appear in comments.

Analysis Map

An Analysis Map uses an image that is relevant to the data, such as the map of a country, to show the responses to single and multiple response questions. An example is showing the results based on the geographical area of a country.

Analysis Variables

Analysis Variables are derived from other variables defined in the survey and are used for statistical analysis. These include auto-category variables, group variables, factor analysis and cluster analysis.


Create a backup copy of a survey.


The ability to let you upload a file photo, audio clip or signature on a survey within our platform, Snap XMP.

Audit Log

This lets you see who has made a change to a survey and what kind of change they made. When you are collaborating as part of a large team, this helps you know which shared user has made a particular change to the survey.

Auto Category Variables

Auto category variables are used to analyse open-ended questions, such as comments, dates, times and quantities by categorising the responses. For example, when creating a word cloud from the respondents’ comments an auto category variable is automatically created to determine how frequently the words are used. The word cloud displays the words that appear most often as the largest so you can see what was most important to your respondents.

Calibration (Scanning)

The process of marking the four tick boxes, which represent the four corners of each page of a questionnaire used in the scanning process.


When there is a core question about multiple things – such as “What do you think about these holiday destinations?”. Each destination will appear on separate slides of a carousel. The respondent clicks a rating out of 10 for the first destination then clicks ‘next’ and the second destination will appear.

Code Rotation

To avoid any interview bias, it is possible to rotate the codes of a question, according to pre-defined rules, so that the codes are re-ordered each time the question is shown in an interview. 


Making a copy of an item in Snap Surveys. This can be a survey, variable, question, weight, analysis, report. This is equivalent to using “Save As”

Closed Question

Closed questions give respondents a choice of predefined answers. The questions can allow multiple answers. Answers can be presented in random orders to prevent bias. Answers can be masked (see “Masking”), answers can also be set as exclusive, so if you asked which of the following you use: A/B/C and you want to include None as a forth option then set that as exclusive.

Confidence Interval

A confidence interval displays the probability that a parameter will fall between a pair of values around the mean. Confidence intervals measure the degree of uncertainty or certainty in a sampling method. Typically, confidence levels of 95% or 99% provide a good confidence level.

Confidence Level

A percentage to outline how confident you are that the survey results accurately reflect the wider population. Usually, the confidence level is set to either 90%, 95% or 99% confidence that the survey is accurate. If it’s any lower, it could be argued that the sample size needs to be reconsidered before progressing further.

Data Picker

A Data Picker allows the addition of an on-screen clock, calendar, keyboard, or numeric keypad on a questionnaire to help respondents enter their answers.

Database Link

You may have an external file (such as an Excel spreadsheet) of participants’ names and contact details, which can then be uploaded to a survey platform. The platform can then send the surveys out to all contacts in a matter of seconds.

Derived Variables

These are variables where the output is created from the answers to previous questions. For example, if a respondent says they have 5 cats and 6 dogs, a derived variable could be used to show the total number of pets (11). The most common use of derived variables is to group responses into categories for analysis.

Editable URL

When sharing surveys, editing the URL to include your brand name helps participants to trust the link.


An edition of a questionnaire defines the publication output, such as PC, phone, tablet or paper, and the language of the questionnaire. A questionnaire can be shown in different output formats and languages. The structure of the questionnaire remains the same for each edition, but the appearance, language and the published output can be different.


One of the three categories of missing data In Snap XMP. Data takes on an error value when it doesn’t fall into any of the remaining categories (of No Reply, Not Asked or Valid).


Highlight specific answers or results – such as how you might filter a certain brand or shoe size when shoe shopping on an e-commerce website. For surveys, you can filter to see results for specific sub-groups of respondents, for example to show results only for younger respondents.


Folders are used to store and organise online surveys, templates and sub-folders.

Group Questionnaires

Use group questionnaires when a respondent needs to complete the questionnaire a number of times, each time for a different subject. 

Group Variables

Link similar questions (such as those around someone’s personality in the workplace) into a group so that the group of questions can be analysed as a whole, used as a single axis for tables for charts.

Kiosk Mode

These are fixed stations in a public place for people to give feedback in person, although the survey is run online. When someone completes the survey (or abandons it) the survey will reset in time for the next respondent.

Map Control

Clickable images in a survey that respondents use to answer questions. For example, clicking an image of British flag to indicate their nationality.


Ensuring only relevant answers are shown based on responses to previous questions. For example, if someone selects 2 out of 5 supermarkets that they regularly shop at, the 3 supermarkets that weren’t selected will not appear in further questions on the topic.

Min/Max Response

In Snap’s validation the min/max response is used in multiple choice questions where the respondent can select more than one answer, to set the range of answers e.g., a minimum of 1 answer but a maximum of 3 answers in a question with 5 choices. The description you’ve given sounds more like a quota – although they only have a maximum number of responses.


The ability to present your questionnaire in multiple languages opens the survey up to a wider audience. This can lead to a better response rate and ensure a broader range of opinions are given.

No Reply

One of the three categories of missing data in Snap XMP. No Reply is used to represent the situation in which a respondent could have given an answer to a question but did not.

Not Asked

One of the three categories of missing data in Snap XMP. Not Asked data represents instances where a question is skipped during an interview due to routing because it is considered irrelevant due to replies already received.

On-premises Servers / Self-hosting Survey Data

Organisations that run surveys may choose to self-host the data on their own premises, perhaps due to different security requirements in their region. This is an alternative to letting the survey platform providers take care of data security.

Open-ended Question

Open-ended questions are questions that require more than simply “yes” or “no” answers – they are designed to delve deeper into the respondent’s opinion.


Paradata are system variables containing information collected when the during the interview. You can choose whether to include this data in the survey. Some of this information (such as a respondent password or the language a survey is conducted in) may alter how the survey appears. Paradata is defined in the Questionnaire properties dialog.

Partial Completed

When someone only fills in a portion of a survey. In regular online surveys, the respondent can pick up their responses so far to complete them at a later time. On kiosk mode, the survey will optionally collate a partial response and reset back to the beginning in time for the next respondent.


The group of people you invite to participate or respond to your survey. (Note – this doesn’t mean they respond.)


Use data from a database or other source to provide final or default answers.


Previewing a questionnaire shows how the questionnaire will run in a live interview without saving any response data. This lets you test the questionnaire and make sure it appears in the correct layout.


A specific type of variable used to collect data from the respondent during an interview.


A form made up of a series of questions that respondents fill in to provide their feedback.


A limit set on the number of respondents of a particular type who are permitted to complete the survey.

Rating Scale Question

A question that is written in the form of multiple statements that the respondent must select which best suits their feelings, usually to how much they ‘agree’ with a statement. Such as “I strongly agree that I am proud to work for my organisation”.

Ratings Check

This is the name we give to the way our software checks that people can only give one answer for first, second, third etc. For example, to the question “what are your top 3 supermarkets?”.


The people who actually take the time to respond to your survey.

Response Pattern

Ensures responses are typed in appropriately. For example, if a respondent is giving their post code, the answer cannot be submitted unless it conforms to the correct styling of post codes. This helps to avoid inaccurate answers and keeps the respondent on task.

Response Type

The type of response determines what kind of data can be entered for each question response. The different response types available are: Single, Multiple, Literal, Date, Time and Quantity.

Routing / Skip Logic

Routing within the survey means the respondent skips any follow-up questions that are not relevant to them. It’s a way of keeping the survey agile and relevant for each respondent.


Screening questions are designed to either include or exclude participants from taking the survey. A common screening question excludes participants who work in the marketing industry.

Shares (Shared with you)

Setting up shares allow you to give permission to other users to work or collaborate with you on a survey. Shares are set up in Snap XMP Online.

Slider Control

A clickable, sliding control that can move left and right or up and down to change a setting – such as the volume on a computer. In a survey, a respondent may drag the slider along a numbered list of 1 to 10 to say how much they enjoyed a holiday or a day at a theme park.

Smart Reports

Smart Reports are exclusive to Snap Surveys. They let you dig deep into your feedback and create reports that can be run again and again. Perfect for ongoing projects.

Snap Offline Interviewer

Snap Surveys exclusive app for face-to-face interviews that lets you conduct online surveys while out in the field – even when there is no steady internet connection. Your survey automatically syncs when you get back online.

Survey Template

A new survey that features pre-fixed elements, such as an organisation’s branding and logo, or specific questions. It helps you get your project underway quicker and to keep things consistent.


SurveyPaks are collections of questions, headings and code frames, which focus on a particular subject area.


Synchronize updates the data responses between Snap XMP Desktop and Snap XMP Online so that you can see the latest data.

Text Substitution

Text substitution is a feature in online editions that lets you change text in your questionnaire based on the responses entered by the respondent to previous questions. This is also known as dynamic text or piping.


The upload process allows changes that have been made to a survey in Snap XMP Desktop to be transferred to Snap XMP Online. This includes changes to the questionnaire, variables, reports, analyses and data.


Validation makes sure answers are of the correct type before the respondent moves to the next question. This can be done by providing a pattern or range of valid answers to the question. For example, if you are asking for someone’s age, a number in a suitable range should be input as the response, otherwise they won’t be able to move on.


Variables represent questions and derived values recording the views, opinions and parameters of respondents for analysis.


Verification of case data is a method for reducing data entry errors. Usually, data entered by one operator (in the normal way) is verified by another operator who enters some or all of the data for a second time using the Verify option of the Edit menu. The operator entering data first time around could be the one who also verifies their own input but this is not normally recommended since operators have a tendency to repeat their own mistakes. Snap XMP Desktop will prompt for action if errors are found during verification, and will remember which raw data cases have, and which have not, been verified.


Feedback from surveys should reflect a broad population, but sometimes a sample size is not available, and you may not get a balanced group of people. Maybe there’s more women than men, or an unusually high number of affluent people than you expect. To balance this out, you can ‘weight’ an under-represented segment of respondents and have them count as more people than there actually were. For example, if you had twice the number of women respond than men, then each man’s response can count as two people. You can also weight the survey sample up to the population, for example if a theme park surveys 1,000 people out of 10,000 daily visitors, then each respondent can be counted as 10 people.

Your work

This is an area in Snap XMP Online that where you can view and organise your folders, surveys and templates. Your work is the first page that you see after you have logged into Snap XMP Online and where you can navigate to the Build, Collect and Analyze sections of your surveys.